The pelagic zone includes all ocean waters away from land. It is an area that is critical for oxygen production, climate regulation, and economic activity.
How do animals survive in pelagic zone?
Many creatures that live in this zone are also transparent, a good camouflage in this zone where there is barely enough light to see. Some animals here have also developed larger eyes to make best use of the limited light. In addition to decreased light, oxygen concentrations are also very limited.
How does the pelagic zone impact global ecology?
Pelagic ecosystems of the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean contribute to the global carbon cycle via the biological carbon pump. Current findings suggest that the biological carbon pump will be less effective if warming continues because increased stratification is likely to reduce nutrient availability.
How do humans impact the pelagic zone?
The main human impacts on the epipelagic zone include shipping and fishing. Many large cargo vessels and tankers venture upon this habitat annually and a large number of chartered vessels take passengers out to view the local fauna, including birds, mammals and epipelagic fishes.
What are the main characteristics of the pelagic environment?
The pelagic environment is populated by a range species for which assessments have been made, namely the Plankton (made up of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) and zooplankton (tiny animals and larvae)) and the nekton comprising Fish, Reptiles, and Mammals together with some free-swimming molluscs (e.g. squid and …
What is the climate of the pelagic zone?
The epipelagic zone is a sunlit level that allows for photosynthesis. This means that almost all primary production occurs here. (Basically plants may photosynthesize in this zone. In the pelagic zone the temperature may be as high as 97º fahrenheit 36º C in the persian gulf, and as cold as 28º F -3ºC near the poles.
What does the pelagic zone consist of?
The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i.e., all of the sea other than that near the coast or the sea floor. In contrast, the demersal zone comprises the water that is near to (and is significantly affected by) the coast or the sea floor.
What factors affect organisms living in the pelagic zone?
The regional and vertical distributions of pelagic life are governed by the abundance of nutrients and dissolved oxygen; the presence or absence of sunlight, water temperature, salinity, and pressure; and the presence of continental or submarine topographic barriers.
Does the pelagic zone have high biodiversity?
Pelagic ecosystems cover more than 70% of the surface of the earth. Their species diversity and richness are related to physicochemical and biological processes acting at a range of temporal and spatial scales.