The cause of guttural pouch mycosis is unknown, but the fungus Aspergillus is the most common type of fungus identified. There is no age, sex, breed, or geographical predisposition.

What causes guttural pouch infection?

Guttural pouch mycosis is a rare but very serious disease in horses. It is caused by a fungus that infects the lining of the guttural pouch, usually on the roof of the guttural pouch. The infection can cause some deep damage to the arteries and nerves.

What is guttural pouch mycosis?

Guttural pouch mycosis is a fungal infection in the guttural pouch caused by a common fungi that most all horses carry. The fungus has an affinity for growing on the surface of the guttural pouch overlying the nerves and arteries.

How do you treat guttural pouch mycosis in horses?

Antifungal drugs that are infused directly into the guttural pouch are the usual treatment for guttural pouch mycosis. If damage to the arteries has occurred, it may be necessary to perform surgery to close the affected blood vessel. This can help prevent a fatal hemorrhage.

How do you prevent guttural pouch mycosis?

With no definitive cause identified, veterinarians can only speculate how to lessen the chances your horse will develop guttural pouch mycosis: Keep stalls clean and dry. Be sure to clean out the corners of the horse’s stall where molds and fungi might accumulate.

How do you flush guttural pouches?

Balanced electrolyte solutions with acetylcys- teine, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or a combination of antimicrobials can be used to flush the guttural pouches. Dilute povidone-iodine solutions (1%) are also used; however, iodine can be neutralized by exudates.

What clinical signs are associated with an infection of the guttural pouch?

Clinical signs include intermittent purulent nasal discharge, painful swelling in the parotid area, and in severe cases, stiff head carriage and stertorous breathing. Fever, depression, and anorexia may or may not be seen. Diagnosis is determined by endoscopic examination of the guttural pouch.

Why do horses have guttural pouch?

Recently, investigators determined that the equine guttural pouches function during selective brain-cooling to maintain blood carried by the internal carotid arteries at a temperature below the core body temperature during hyperthermia, induced by exercise.

Why is my horses chin swollen?

Theories include exposure to new, spring grass or sugar-rich grass or pollens. Without a clear understanding of the condition, no specific treatment currently exists. Other causes of facial swellings in horses include: Inflammation of the salivary glands, such as the parotid gland (parotiditis);

What is a guttural pouch wash?

Guttural pouch endoscopy including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacteriological analysis of the guttural pouch washes: This test is useful to determine the true disease status of a horse, which may have had a positive result on a blood test, or it can be used to assess whether or not a horse which has recently

What causes a horses tongue to swell?

Actinobacillus lignieresii primarily causes large abscesses of the tongue, a condition often called wooden tongue. The tongue becomes hard and swollen, leading to drooling and difficulty eating. This infection occurs most frequently in cattle, but is also seen in horses.

Do humans have a guttural pouch?

Structure. The guttural pouches are located behind the cranial cavity, caudally the skull and below the wings of the atlas (C1). They are enclosed by the parotid and mandibular salivary glands, and the pterygoid muscles.

How do you treat a sinus infection in a horse?

Treatment. In acute cases the horse is usually medicated with systemic antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication, and re-evaluated in 2 weeks. If the sinus infection does not get better in 2 weeks then surgical options need to be explored.

How do you treat respiratory infection in horses?

Ceftiofur sodium was evaluated as a therapy for respiratory infections in horses. This cephalosporin antimicrobial was administered intramuscularly every 24 h and at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg (1.0 mg/lb) of body weight.

Why does my horse have yellow snot in one nostril?

Thick, yellow, pus-filled mucus may result from a bacterial or viral infection or strangles. In either case, the horse will also have a fever, cough and other signs of illness. In the case of strangles, you may find painful swellings under the jaw and around the throat, and the horse may stand with his head lowered.